Course Outline: SK401 Sanskrit: Grammar and Syntax II, 2011/2012, Semester 2

Basic Data
Bachelor of Arts (Buddhist Studies)
Second Semester (December 05, 2011–April 07, 2012) Academic Year 2011/2012
Credit / status: 
3 credits / Departmental Subject
Course Organization: 

The conjugation of the verbs is classified into two groups.

  • The 1st group: the 1st, 4th, 6th and 10th conjugations ending in vowels should be more practiced through exercises.
  • All those conjugational process require rules of sandhi, namely Vowel sandhi, consonant sandhi.
  • Vowel sandhi: savarṛṇadīrghasandhi, guṇasandhi, vṛdhisandhi, yaṇsandhi, etc. will be practiced.
  • The 2nd group of verbs: 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th and 9th conjugations ending in vowels and consonants. The conjugation of this group will be discussed along with vyanjañasandhis.
  • Vibhakti or case termination should be practiced with different nouns and adjectives on the basis of subjective and predicative matter the syntax of the cases will be discussed.
  • The sentence structure will be discussed on the basis of an agreement between subject and predicate in genders, numbers, tenses, moods, and voices, some verbal derivations-Participles (present and past).
  • Visargasandhis will be discussed in structure of sentences.
  • Students will be required to practice some exercises, general rules, question and answers.
  • Revision for the final examination.
Course Requirements: 

All students are expected:

  • 1. To attend minimum of 80% of the schedule classes to be eligible to sit for the final examination.
  • 2. Students are required to write a short essay.
  • 3. Class Participation.
  • 4. Midterm written examination.
  • 5. Final written examinations.
  • 6. Students should follow to practice exercises in every chapter.
  • 7. For essay writing related helpful guide:
Allocation of Marks: 
  • 1. Quiz and assignment 9%
  • 2. Midterm Examination 41%
  • 3. Final Written Examination 50%
Course Objectives: 

The study of Sanskrit is important no doubt because Sanskrit literature gives description of vast branches of ancient Indian history as well as various aspects of religious, philosophical, cultural and political history. The most important fact is that Sanskrit Buddhist Texts describe what the Mahāyāna Buddhism taught and other teachers who composed predominant works on Sanskrit Buddhist literature contribute largely to ancient India’s religious and philosophical field. The study of Sanskrit is also important for students to learn Pāli because it helps students to grasp the structure of Pāli language easily through the Sanskrit grammar which forms a complete system and scientific method. Therefore it is necessary to learn Sanskrit for one who wants to learn Pāli on the subject matter of Early Buddhism.

Students should concentrate their attention on learning by heart the basic structure of Sanskrit such as vocabulary, declension, conjugation and sandhi etc. The class is to run step by step to let students grasp the Sanskrit language through training to analyze sentences into a part of speech, translating them into English and also reversely. The class will recommend some lines from Sanskrit Buddhist texts in order to understand the technical terms of late Buddhism. The course would be of much benefit for a student expecting to reach one’s destination, the deep knowledge of the late Buddhism on the basis of Sanskrit works.


All tests, assignments and examinations are graded as follows with grade point and numerical marks:

Grade Performance Grade value Percentage Equivalence
A+ Excellent 4.0 90-100
A Almost Excellent 3.75 85-89
A- Fairly Excellent 3.5 80-84
B+ Very Good 3.25 75-79
B Good 3.0 70-74
B- Fairly Good 2.75 65-69
C+ Fair 2.5 60-64
C Satisfactory 2.25 55-59
C- Minimum Satisfactory 2.0 50-54
D+ Fairly Poor 1.5 40-49
D Poor 1.0 30-39
F Fail 0.0 29 or less
I Incomplete
W Withdrawn
WF Withdrawn because of failure
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